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美國聯(lián)邦存款保險公司

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美國聯(lián)邦存款保險公司(Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation,FDIC)
美國聯(lián)邦存款保險公司(Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation,FDIC)

美國聯(lián)邦存款保險公司網(wǎng)站網(wǎng)址http://www.fdic.gov

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美國聯(lián)邦存款保險公司簡(jiǎn)介

    美國聯(lián)邦存款保險公司(FDIC)當地時(shí)間二十五日晚宣布了美國歷史上最大的銀行倒閉案,總部位于華盛頓州的華盛頓互惠銀行資不抵債立即停業(yè),由摩根大通以十九億美元的超低價(jià)收購這家有一百一十九年歷史、曾經(jīng)擁有三千億美元資產(chǎn)和一千八百八十億美元存款的銀行的部分業(yè)務(wù)和分支機構。鑒于華盛頓互惠銀行(Washington Mutual)“流動(dòng)性不足,無(wú)法滿(mǎn)足公司債務(wù)的支付要求,因而該行不能安全、穩定地進(jìn)行業(yè)務(wù)”,美國儲蓄機構監理局(OTS)當地時(shí)間二十五日晚勒令華盛頓互惠銀行停業(yè)。這是自一九八四年伊利諾伊州大陸國民銀行倒閉以來(lái),美國歷史上最大的銀行倒閉案。據美國聯(lián)邦存款保險公司(FDIC)二十五日晚間發(fā)表的一份聲明稱(chēng),由摩根大通以十九億美元的成本收購華盛頓互助銀行的存款業(yè)務(wù)、分支機構以及其他業(yè)務(wù)。盡管華盛頓互惠銀行旗下的數千億資產(chǎn)瞬間蒸發(fā),但這筆收購對華盛頓互助銀行現有的儲蓄客戶(hù)以及其他客戶(hù)都不會(huì )造成任何影響,華盛頓互惠銀行周五將照常營(yíng)業(yè)。 [1]

  聯(lián)邦存款保險公司(Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation,FDIC)是由美國國會(huì )在1930年大蕭條時(shí)期大量銀行被擠兌后創(chuàng )立的。截至2007年底,它已擁有524億美元的國家儲蓄保險基金。

  為恢復存款人對銀行系統的信任,美國在大危機后的1934年,根據《1933年銀行法》建立了聯(lián)邦存款保險公司。聯(lián)邦存款保險公司由理事會(huì )負責管理,理事會(huì )成員內5人組成,其成員包括貨幣監理署總監、儲蓄管理辦公室主任以及總統任命的其他3名理事(含理事會(huì )主席)。

  美國法律要求國民銀行、聯(lián)邦儲備體系會(huì )員銀行必須參加存款保險,不是聯(lián)邦儲備體系成員的州立銀行和其他金融機構可自愿參加保險。目前,新成立的銀行都必須投保。實(shí)際上,美國幾乎所有的銀行都參加了保險。聯(lián)邦存款保險公司對每個(gè)賬戶(hù)的保險金額最高為10萬(wàn)美元。

美國聯(lián)邦存款保險公司徽章
放大
美國聯(lián)邦存款保險公司徽章

  聯(lián)邦存款保險公司的資本來(lái)源于向投保銀行收取的保險費。1999年以前保費按固定比例收取,現改按差別比例收取。收取比例確定的依據是,先按資本充足情況將投保銀行分為上、中、下三組,再按監管情況分為A、B、C三組,然后分別確定不同檔次的保費收取比例。保費收取比例最高為27/10000;最低為 0。同時(shí)法律授權聯(lián)邦存款保險公司在緊急情況下,有權向美國財政部借款300億美元。

The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) is a United States government corporation created by the Glass-Steagall Act of 1933. It provides deposit insurance which guarantees the safety of checking and savings deposits in member banks, currently up to $100,000 per depositor per bank. The vast number of bank failures in the Great Depression spurred the United States Congress to create an institution to guarantee deposits held by commercial banks, inspired by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and its Depositors Insurance Fund (DIF).

The FDIC insures accounts at different banks separately. For example, a person with accounts at two separate banks (not merely branches of the same bank) can keep $100,000 in each account and be insured for the total of $200,000. Also, accounts in different ownerships (such as beneficial ownership, trusts, and joint accounts) are considered separately for the $100,000 insurance limit. The Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Act of 2005 raised the amount of insurance for an Individual Retirement Account to $250,000.

History

Inception

The 19th century economy of the United States was characterized by occasional bank panics, with corresponding economic downturns and unemployment. After the particularly severe Panic of 1893, legislators sought to arrange better security for bank deposits. William Jennings Bryan, for example, proposed a national bank guarantee fund for use during bank runs. Although deposit security measures were adopted at the state level, the federal government chose a "lender of last resort" approach in the form of the Federal Reserve System.

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[編輯]


This system failed to prevent an early bank panic in 1933, at the end of Herbert Hoover's term as president. The panic saw 4,004 banks closed, with an average of $900,000 in deposits. Under the federal government's supervision, these banks were merged into stronger banks. Many months later, depositors received compensation for roughly 85% of their former deposits.[citation needed] Incoming President Franklin D. Roosevelt, a former banker himself, did not like the insurance approach, but he agreed to it to restore confidence in the banking system.[citation needed]

In May 1933, the U.S. House Banking and Currency Committee submitted a bill that would insure deposits 100 percent to $10,000, and after that on a sliding scale; it would be financed by a small assessment on the banks. However the U.S. Senate Banking Committee reported a bill that excluded banks that were not members of the Federal Reserve System. Senator Arthur Vandenberg rejected both bills because neither contained a ceiling on the guarantees. He proposed an amendment covering all banks, beginning by using a temporary fund and a $2,500 ceiling. It was passed as the Glass-Steagall Deposit Insurance Act in June 1933 with Steagall's amendment that the program would be managed by the new Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. The bill was not supported by banks: Francis Sisson, then-president of the American Bankers Association, said that concept of banks paying into a fund that would insure individual banks against losses was "unsound, unscientific, unjust, and dangerous."[2]

Led by Chicago banker Walter J. Cummings, Sr., the FDIC soon included almost all the country's 19,000 banking offices. Insurance started January 1, 1934. President Franklin D. Roosevelt was personally opposed to insurance because he thought it would protect irresponsible bankers, but yielded when he saw Congressional support was overwhelming.[citation needed] In early 1934, Roosevelt appointed Leo Crowley, a Wisconsin banker, as the second head of FDIC. Crowley, Roosevelt soon learned, did not have an unblemished record as a banker in Wisconsin. After some anguish, Roosevelt kept Crowley on and ignored his detractors. The outstanding public service of Leo Crowley was not generally known until 1996.[3]

S&L and bank crisis of the 1980s

Federal deposit insurance received its first large-scale test in the late 1980s and early 1990s during the savings and loan crisis (which also affected commercial banks).

The brunt of the crisis fell upon a parallel institution, the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation (FSLIC), created to insure savings and loan institutions (S&Ls, also called thrifts). Due to a confluence of events, much of the S&L industry was insolvent, and many large banks were in trouble as well. The FSLIC became insolvent and merged into the FDIC. Thrifts are now overseen by the Office of Thrift Supervision, an agency that works closely with the FDIC and the Comptroller of the Currency. (Credit unions are insured by the National Credit Union Administration.) The primary legislative responses to the crisis were the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act of 1989 (FIRREA) and Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 (FDICIA).

This crisis cost taxpayers an estimated $150 billion to resolve.

FDIC funds

Former Funds

There were two separate FDIC funds; one was the Bank Insurance Fund (BIF), and the other was the Savings Association Insurance Fund (SAIF). The latter was established after the savings & loans crisis of the 1980s. The existence of two separate funds for the same purpose led to banks attempting to shift from one fund to another, depending on the benefits each could provide. In the 1990s, SAIF premiums were at one point five times higher than BIF premiums; several banks attempted to qualify for the BIF, with some merging with institutions qualified for the BIF to avoid the higher premiums of the SAIF. This drove up the BIF premiums as well, resulting in a situation where both funds were charging higher premiums than necessary.[4]

Then Chairman of the Federal Reserve Alan Greenspan was a critic of the system, saying that "We are, in effect, attempting to use government to enforce two different prices for the same item – namely, government-mandated deposit insurance. Such price differences only create efforts by market participants to arbitrage the difference." Greenspan proposed "to end this game and merge SAIF and BIF".[5]

Deposit Insurance Fund

In February, 2006, President George W. Bush signed The Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Act of 2005 (the Reform Act) into law. The FDIRA contains technical and conforming changes to implement deposit insurance reform, as well as a number of study and survey requirements. Among the highlights of this law was merging the Bank Insurance Fund (BIF) and the Savings Association Insurance Fund (SAIF) into a new fund, the Deposit Insurance Fund (DIF). This change was made effective March 31, 2006. The FDIC maintains the DIF by assessing depository institutions an insurance premium. The amount each institution is assessed is based both on the balance of insured deposits as well as on the degree of risk the institution poses to the insurance fund.

At the end of 2007, the DIF had a balance of $52 billion[6]. Bank failures typically represent a cost to the DIF because FDIC, as receiver of the failed institution, must liquidate assets that have declined substantially in value while at the same time making good on the institution's deposit obligations. In July 2008, IndyMac Bank failed and was placed into receivership. The failure was initially projected by the FDIC to cost the DIF between $4 billion and $8 billion[7], but shortly thereafter the FDIC revised its estimate upward to $8.9 billion. Due to the failures of IndyMac and other banks, the DIF fell in the second quarter of 2008 to $45.2 billion.[8]. The decline in the insurance fund's balance[9] caused the reserve ratio (fund's balance divided by the insured deposits) to fall to 1.01 percent as at 30 June 2008, down from 1.19 percent in the prior quarter. Once the ratio falls below below 1.15 percent, FDIC is required to develop a restoration plan to replenish the fund, which is expected to involve requiring higher contributions from banks which deal in riskier activities.[10]

參考文獻

  1. http://news.qq.com/a/20080927/000041.htm 華盛頓互惠銀行停業(yè) 成美最大銀行倒閉案
  2. Daniel Gross, "Bair Market: The FDIC chairwoman's great ideas for preventing the meltdown of America's banking industry", Slate magazine, July 18, 2008
  3. Stuart L. Weiss; The President's Man: Leo Crowley and Franklin Roosevelt in Peace and War;; Southern Illinois University Press, 1996
  4. Sicilia, David B. & Cruikshank, Jeffrey L. (2000). The Greenspan Effect, pp. 96–97. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-134919-7.
  5. Sicilia & Cruikshank, pp. 97–98.
  6. FDIC: Press Releases - PR-15-2008 2/26/2008
  7. FDIC: Press Releases - PR-56-2008 7/11/2008
  8. Wutkowski, Karey (26 August 2008). "FDIC says IndyMac failure costlier than expected", Reuters Business & Finance, Reuters. Retrieved on 2008-08-28.
  9. Failed Bank List" (HTML). Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. Retrieved on 2008-08-28.
  10. Wutkowski, Karey (26 August 2008). "FDIC says IndyMac failure costlier than expected", Reuters Business & Finance, Reuters. Retrieved on 2008-08-28.
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110.7.113.* 在 2012年3月18日 22:03 發(fā)表

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110.7.118.* 在 2012年3月22日 16:24 發(fā)表

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